While cutting metals various workpiece materials are identified. Each material has got a perticular cutting technique as well as removefeatures. We need to manage all characteristics of each material. ISO regular metals fall into 6 categories, and every single one of them possesses certain features related to processing. Let us consider each separate type.
- P – steel
- M – stainless (rustproof) steels
- K –
- N – nonferrous metals
- S – heat-resistant alloy
- H – hardened steels
Cut features of each material
1. P steel
It is the most widespread material in metal cut processing. It may be not hardened, quenched or tempered, it can possess rigidity up to 400 HB. Steel is admixture which contains mainly iron (Fe) and is fabricated in smelt procedure. Not alloy steel contains as little carbon as 0.8 percent and iron, does not contain any other admixture components. Admixture steels contain as little carbon as 1.7 percent, also other admixture components like Ni, Cr, Mo, V, W and so on.
Among cut metals P type is the most vastly applied one as it is applicable in various areas of industry. Its stuff is of long-chipped and has capability of being formed continuously. Carbon proportion commonly decides particular chip shape. Little carbon proportion indicates rigid viscidity of materials, and great carbon proportion indicates brittlness of the stuff.
While processing, it is suitable to have it in the long-chipped form. It is easier to carry out chip control. Tempered steel is adherence, it has to be cut in sharp ridges. Cut strength kc is from 1500 to 3100 N/mm2. Cut force and capacity requirements for ISO P type stuff processing appear in a restricted circle.
2. M Stainless (rustproof) steel.
This is admixture containing at least 11 or 12 percent chrome. Contains little carbon, no more than 0.01 percent. Admixtures include mostly nickel, molybdenum, titanium. Steel should be covered with a thick coat of Cr 203 to possess resistance against corrosity.
|P5||Ferrite rustproof steel|
|M||M1||Austenite rustproof steels|
|M2||Super austenite rustproof steels |
Ni ≥ 20 percent
|M3||Double rustproof steel- austenite, |
Materials of M category are applied in oil, gas industry, pipe fitting, process industry as well as in pharmaceutic industry. This stuf constitutes non regular flaked chip that possesses more cut strength compared to regular steels. Rustproof steel can be of various kinds. Chip breakage process depends on admixture features as well as thermic processing.
Appears in long-chipped form. Chip controlling may be somewhat easy in case of ferritic material, but hard in case of austenitic and double form materials. Cut strength is from 1800 to 2850 N/mm². These materials are featured with great cut strength, complex ridges and can be exposed to thermal hardening while processing.
3. K Casted Iron.
This material appears in 3 forms: grey (GCI), docile (NCI) and compact graphite casted iron (CGI). This mainly consists of Fe-C as well as great silicon proportion from 1 to 3 percent. Carbon proportion is more than 2 percent and it is the utmost C solubility in austenitic stage. Chrome, molibdenum, vanadium combination makes it possible to produce carbide. The latter enhances force, rigidity, but reduces ability to be machined.
|K1||Compliant casted iron|
|K2||Grey casted iron|
|K4||Vermiculite graphite casted iron|
|K5||Austempered docile iron|
Materials of K category are applicable in automobile, apparatus manufactury as well as in iron fabrication. These materials can be formed into powder or long chip. This category requires little processing strength. Gray casted iron (mainly in chips) varies vastly from docile casted iron, it has some similarities with steels.
Appears in short-chipped forms. Chip controlling is proper in different circumstances. Cut strength is from 790 to 1350 N/mm². High speed treatment may bring to erosive outwear. Requires average cut strength.
4. N Non ferrous metal.
This category includes nonferrous, mild metal materials featured with no more than 130 HB rigidity. Mostly nonferrous admixtures contain about 22 percent silicone, i.e. Si. Copper, bronze, brass fall in this category.
|N1||Admixture-based nonferrous metal|
|N4||Zinc based alloys|
Materials of N category are widely applied in aircrafts, alluminum admixture wheels manufactury. Strength for each mm³ is not high, but the demanded utmost force has to be calculated.
Appears in long-chipped material form. In case of admixture chip controlling is not hard. Non ferrous metals (Al) may be adhesive, it demands acute cut edges. Cut strength is from 350 to 700 N/mm². Cut strength and motion necessary for N ctaegory stuff processing are in restricted circle.
5. Heat-resistant admixture.
Heat-resistant alloys (HRSA) include high-alloyed iron, nickel, cobalt and titanium-based stuff. Materials of this category can be annealed, rolled, forged and cast. These materials contain high-alloy contents, making them more heat-resistant, tensile-strong and corrosity resistant.
|S1||Iron based admixture|
|S2||Nickel based admixture|
|S5||Tungsten based admixture|
S type stuff are applicable inthe industry of aircraft, gas turbines, generators. They require great cut strength.
Materials of this category appear in form of long chips. Chip controlling is hard. Ceramic materials require negative rake angles, cement carbides require positive rake angles. Cut strength is from 2400 to 3100 N/mm² in case of heat-resistant alloy and from 1300 to 1400 N/mm² in case of titanium alloys. Great cut strength as well as motion is demanded.
6. H Hardened Steels
In terms of processing hardened steels are the narrowest group and includes quenched, tempered steels possessing rigidity > 45-65 HRC. Normally rigidity of the hardest piece while processing is within 55 and 68 HRC.
|H1||Steels of 45-46HRC|
|H||H2||Chill casted irons|
Materials in this category have a vast application in automobile, machinery, mold industry. They appear in hot-chipped form and the heat reduces kc1 valuation, which contributes to various challenge solutions during application.
Mostly appear as long-chipped materials and chip controlling is easy, have got requirements of negative rake angles. Cut strength is from 2550 to 4870 N/mm², they require great cut strength and motion.
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