This is the utmost force to which plate metal is exposed prior to taking out. Unit is N/mm2 or MPa and symbol is σbb. It is a metal force indicator.

Bending Force

Bending Force

This one is the utmost force to which the cross area is exposed while load is put amongst two spots of the model. Unit of this is N/mm2 or MPa and symbol is σbb. This is an indicator of plate metal.

Pressing Force

Pressing Force

This is the utmost compressive force which enables metal plate to stand press and not to be broken. N/mm2 or MPa are its units and σbc is its symbol.

Yielding Force

Yielding Force

This indicates sheet specimen stress in the stretch procedure, while the load does not increase any more and the specimen goes on deforming. Its units are N/mm2, MPa and symbol is σs. Yielding force is the press value of yielding spot. For any stuff with no apparent yield pressure value, which performs 0.2 % constant deformity is commonly specified as yielding force.

5. Shearing force

This indicates the utmost load of a primary cross-sectioned zone of shearing space prior to the specimen shearing. Its units are N/mm2, MPa, its symbol σт.

6. Elastic limit

Elastic Limit

This one specifies the utmost stress of a sample in the same conditions as the testing pieces deform in the aftermath of outer force disappearence and enables to regain the primary state. Its units are N/mm2, MPa, its symbol is σe.

7. Cracked face shrinking scale

Cracked face shrinking scale

This indicates the primary cross-sectioned space which shrinks in the aftermath of extensile load. Its symbol is ψ. It is a plastic indicator of metal material.

8. Elongation factor

Elongation factor

Specifies the specimen stuff elongation rate as well as the primary length when the testing stuff breaks. So, elongation is a plastic indicator and δ is its symbol.

9. Firmness


This indicates the sheet capability to stand rough compression on its face. Firmness is of three kinds: Brinell, Rockwell and Vickers. Mostly steel firmness rises in accordance with carbon rise in steel.

10. Brinell Hardness (HB)

Brinell Hardness

One of the firmness indication and measuring methods implies pressing steel orb in the aftermath of quench process in the sheet face and exposing it to a certain load for a while, later estimating the interrelation between load compression and pressure zone. Brinell firmness is this very ratio.

11. Rockwell Hardness (HR)

Rockwell Hardness

Another firmness indication and measuring method implies pressing cone of diamond and steel orb in the aftermath of quench process in the testing stuff face, later calculating stuff firmness in acordance with pressure deepness. Rockwell firmness is classified into HRA, HRB and HRC types depending on various testing features and compression.

HRA firmness is gained through forcing 1470 N compression near diamond heads with cone bevel 120 degree on testing specimens. This is proper to measure face quench coat, carburize coat as well as tough alloy stuff.

HRB represents firmness unit, which is gained through exposing 980 N compression to the steel orb with 1.59 mm caliber. This is proper to measure mild metal like non-ferrous metal, anneal and standardizing steels

HRC firmness is gained through 588 N compression near cone of diamond with 120 degrees vertex bevel in case of test specimens. This is proper to measure tough metals like tempered or hardened steels.

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