This implies bending metal plates at a particular angle and shaping a required form. Through bend deformation occurs at one axis, though a set of various procedures can shape an intricate part. Bent pieces may be as little as brackets or be of 20 feet long. These specifications characterize bending. See in depiction. 

Bending scheme

Bending line-It is the direct line on plate metal face on both parts of bend, which determines the level ridge ending and bending start.

Outer mold line– this one is the direct line on which outer faces of both ridges come together. It determines the mold ridge that bounds bent plate.

Mold line distance is the space between both ends of plate metal and outer mold line.

Setback is the space between bending lines and outer mold line. It is as long as the mold line space and ridge.

Bend axis determines the spot at which plate metal bends.

Bending length– This is measured alongside bending axle.

Bending radius– The space between bend axle and inner face of a plate metal. It may also be mentioned as inner bending radius. Outer bend radius is the inner bend radius plus plate density.

Bending angle– It is determined betwixt bent ridge and its primary location.

Bevel angle– tha additional angle to the bending one.

  Bending brings about sheet metal pressing and contraction. Outer part of plates gets pressed and expanded alongside and inner part gets contracted and shortened. Neutral axle is a zone in plate metal where there is no press or contraction strength.

Bending allowance and deduction are the two specifications that determine changes on outer and inner faces. See in the given depiction.

Natural Axis

Bending is realized by a press brake device and it functions with manual and automatic operations. Bending can be mentioned as press brake shaping as well. Press brake devices can be of a set of sizes generally from 20 up to 200 tons to meet particular riquirements. These devices consist of top and bottom tools, in the amongst of which plate metals can be placed. Metal sheet is put upon a die and it is kept through the backside gauge. Then sheet is lowered and forced to be bent. In case of automatically operating machines, punch forces the plate with a hydraulic barrel. Forced plate deepness determines aquired bending elbow. So the deepness should get a precise control to obtain required bend. Standard tool, which allows not high cost, is commonly suitable for press brake upper(punch) and lower (die) units. As to special bend, custom tools are suitable, though the cost will rise. Tools are usually picked up considering the scale of producing, plate metal stuff as well as bend degree. For a large scale production, more solid sheets and intricate bends a tougher tooling is suitable. Hardwood, low carbon and carbide steel increase the force.

Springback
Press Brake (Open)
Press Brake (Closed)

Techniques for plate metal bending vary. One of the methods used commonly is V bending. This implies pushing plate material in V-shaped groove upon a die by the punch forcing it to be bent. In case the plate is not pushed deep in die allowing vacant area or air at base, the process is refered to as air bending. The V-shaped groove should possess a sharp bevel. In these two methods V groove breadth is within 6 and 8 times as thick as plate metal. This amount is often mentioned as die rate, which equals V groove size devided by plate density.

V Bending

Wipe bend is one more technique of bending. This is also refered to as ridge bend. During this process plate metal is pushed upon wiping die by a liner. Late plate ridges are pressed by punch extending out of the die and liner bounderies. This brings to plate bending upon the wiping die ridge semidiameter.

Wipe Bending

Designing instructions

Bend positionning- it must be on the area with sufficient stuff, which is advseable to possess direct ridges to prevent plate slip. Flange breadth must be no less than four times as thick as the plate adding bending semidiameter.

Bending semidiameter

Apply the same semidiameter for all bendings to escape extra tools and adjustments.

Inner part of semidiameter must be of the same density as the plate.

Bending direction should be vertical to the rolling operation.

If any slits or pores, they should be 3 times as far from the bend as the plate density together with bend semidiameter.

In manual bend process considering design, slits may be cut alongside bending line to decrease manual strength.

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